How To Diagnose It
The diagnosis of depression and anxiety can be made by a mental health professional, such as a psychiatrist, psychologist, or clinical social worker. A physical examination and laboratory tests may also be done to rule out other medical conditions.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders is the standard classification of mental disorders used by mental health professionals in the United States. It includes criteria for diagnosing depression and anxiety disorders.
The DSM-V criteria to diagnose depression and anxiety include some criteria and methods that are controversial and not well-validated. The most controversial is the requirement that the symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
This means that a person who is depressed or anxious but does not feel distressed or impaired may not be diagnosed with a mental disorder. For example, if a person experiences anxiety about going to work but goes to work anyway, they would not be diagnosed with an anxiety disorder.
So, an accurate diagnosis can make a huge difference in whether a person will be able to get treatment or not. If you think you may have depression or anxiety, it is important to see a mental health professional for an evaluation.
How Is Depression Different From Anxiety
Depression is different from anxiety. Rather than feeling anxious and nervous, feelings of gloom and melancholy overwhelm. Feeling sad or down after experiencing a loss or disappointment is an emotion that everyone feels at one time or another. But when low mood and sadness is severe and lasts for long periods of time, it could be due to depression.
There are two main types of depression: Major Depressive Disorder and Persistent Depressive Disorder . While the signs and symptoms of both are similar, the intensity and duration differ. Symptoms of both Major Depressive Disorder and dysthymia include:
- Sleep disruptions
Mental Markers Of Depression
People with depression may:
- Be hopeless, assuming that nothing positive will happen in the future for themselves, for others, or for the world
- Believe it is not worth trying to think or feel differently, because of this hopelessness
- Feel worthless, as if who they are or what they do is not valuable
- Think about death due to a persistent belief that life is not worth living or that the individual is a burden on others. In cases of moderate to severe depression, more specific suicidal thoughts can be present.
Feel hopeless about themselves, others, the world
Believe it is not worth trying
Think about death due to a persistent belief that life is not worth living
In major depressive disorder , these types of thoughts are persistent most of the day and more days than not for weeks on end. If a person vacillates between a very low and very high mood state, then a diagnosis of bipolar disorder may apply. For any variant of a mood disorder, the low mood state is likely to be characterized by the type of thinking described above.
If you are having suicidal thoughts, contact the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 988 for support and assistance from a trained counselor. If you or a loved one are in immediate danger, call 911.
For more mental health resources, see our National Helpline Database.
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How To Seek Help
When seeking more formalized help for anxiety or depression, start by speaking with your primary care physician.
You can also research local referrals via national organizations including:
Bear in mind that while effective treatment for anxiety or depression need not be a long-term commitment, it is likely to require regular, ongoing appointments at least in the short term . Therefore, it is critical to find a professional you trust and with whom you feel comfortable speaking about your symptoms.
It is equally important to make sure that you find a clinician that you can afford. Before making the commitment to ongoing care, you may want to meet with a couple of providers to get a feel for their therapeutic styles and their treatment recommendations. You can then use this information to determine which path forward feels best to you.
How Are They Different
The main difference between depression and anxiety is the symptoms. Depression is a persistent feeling of sadness. You also have no energy and you lose interest in activities you once loved. Some people with depression think about hurting themselves.
Anxiety involves fear or worry that you can’t control. Depending on the type of anxiety you have, the worry can surface during everyday activities like meeting new people.
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What Is The Difference Between Anxiety And Depression
Part of the reason why anxiety vs depression can be difficult for many people to identify is that there are overlapping symptoms in the two conditions. Also, keep in mind that many people diagnosed with major depressive disorder may also have an anxiety disorder. In fact, nearly half of all people diagnosed with depression are also diagnosed with an anxiety disorder.
So, what is the difference between anxiety and depression?
While there are many common symptoms between anxiety and depression such as fatigue, changes in appetite, and difficulty concentrating there are also some blatant differences. For example, excessive worry is more common with anxiety, whereas thoughts of suicide are more prevalent with depression.
Anxiety and depression also fall into different classifications of disorders. Anxiety is its own class, and depression is a separate mood disorder. Finally, another difference between the two conditions is that theyre sometimes treated with different medications.
To best understand the differences listed above, its important to review these disorders in-depth.
Alcohol Tobacco And Other Drugs
The misuse and abuse of alcohol, tobacco, illicit drugs, and prescription medications affect the health and well-being of millions of Americans. SAMHSAs 2020 National Survey on Drug Use and Health reports that approximately 19.3 million people aged 18 or older had a substance use disorder in the past year.
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When Does Anxiety Need Treatment
While anxiety can cause distress, it is not always a medical condition.
When an individual faces potentially harmful or worrying triggers, feelings of anxiety are not only normal but necessary for survival.
Since the earliest days of humanity, the approach of predators and incoming danger sets off alarms in the body and allows evasive action. These alarms become noticeable in the form of a raised heartbeat, sweating, and increased sensitivity to surroundings.
The danger causes a rush of adrenalin, a hormone and chemical messenger in the brain, which in turn triggers these anxious reactions in a process called the fight-or-flight response. This prepares humans to physically confront or flee any potential threats to safety.
For many people, running from larger animals and imminent danger is a less pressing concern than it would have been for early humans. Anxieties now revolve around work, money, family life, health, and other crucial issues that demand a persons attention without necessarily requiring the fight-or-flight reaction.
The nervous feeling before an important life event or during a difficult situation is a natural echo of the original fight-or-flight reaction. It can still be essential to survival anxiety about being hit by a car when crossing the street, for example, means that a person will instinctively look both ways to avoid danger.
Anxiety disorders now include the following diagnoses.
Possible causes include:
A More Anxious Shade Of Depression
To receive an official major depressive disorder diagnosis, one must meet a certain number of symptomatic criteria. As a result, differing depressive profiles can exist, at times in stark opposition to one another. Anxious depression is one such suggested profile, with one of its definitive features being comorbidity with certain symptoms of anxiety.
Anxious depression is generally applied to cases where the patient has been diagnosed with depression, in addition to symptoms of anxiety. Research has shown that many cases of major depression include symptoms of anxiety, as well.
Patients who, on the other hand, have been officially diagnosed with both anxiety and depression, would be considered having a comorbidity of anxiety and depression, instead of anxious depression.
The FDA has recognized the ability of treatments such as Deep TMS to safely and effectively bring about anxious depression symptom relief. Research on anxious depression suggests applying this definition to cases where the criteria of an official major depression diagnosis have been met, as well as the existence of subthreshold anxiety. Studies continue to suggest referring to cases where an anxiety diagnosis and a depression diagnosis are both given, as comorbidity.
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Depression Is Different From Sadness Or Grief/bereavement
The death of a loved one, loss of a job or the ending of a relationship are difficult experiences for a person to endure. It is normal for feelings of sadness or grief to develop in response to such situations. Those experiencing loss often might describe themselves as being depressed.
But being sad is not the same as having depression. The grieving process is natural and unique to each individual and shares some of the same features of depression. Both grief and depression may involve intense sadness and withdrawal from usual activities. They are also different in important ways:
- In grief, painful feelings come in waves, often intermixed with positive memories of the deceased. In major depression, mood and/or interest are decreased for most of two weeks.
- In grief, self-esteem is usually maintained. In major depression, feelings of worthlessness and self-loathing are common.
- In grief, thoughts of death may surface when thinking of or fantasizing about joining the deceased loved one. In major depression, thoughts are focused on ending ones life due to feeling worthless or undeserving of living or being unable to cope with the pain of depression.
Grief and depression can co-exist For some people, the death of a loved one, losing a job or being a victim of a physical assault or a major disaster can lead to depression. When grief and depression co-occur, the grief is more severe and lasts longer than grief without depression.
What Are The Signs Of Depression And Anxiety
There are a few key signs to look for if you think someone you know may be struggling with depression and anxiety. First, pay attention to their mood.
- Are they consistently sad or down?
- Do they seem irritable or easily angered?
Next, notice any changes in their behavior.
- Have they withdrawn from friends or activities they used to enjoy?
- Are they using more alcohol or drugs?
Lastly, observe their physical health.
- Are they eating less or more than usual?
- Sleeping too much or too little?
- Losing or gaining weight?
Some common signs simply mean that a person is going through a tough time and do not necessarily indicate a mental health disorder. However, if you notice several of the above signs lasting for more than two weeks, it could be time to seek professional help. Depression and anxiety are common mental health disorders that can have debilitating effects on those who suffer from them.
Therefore, you should never hesitate to reach out for help if you are struggling. There are many resources available to you, and treatment can make a world of difference. If you or someone you know is struggling with depression or anxiety, please do not hesitate to reach out for help.
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What Do Anxiety And Depression Feel Like
Both are similar in that the main symptoms relate to your mood and feelings, as well as how they affect you physically.We all experience feelings of anxiety and low mood sometimes. Symptoms can be different for everyone, and just because you experience some symptoms, it doesnt mean you have an anxiety or depression disorder. But if the symptoms drag on for several weeks and dont seem to get better, it may be worth a visit to your GP to find out more.Lets break down some of the symptoms a bit further.
Anxiety Vs Depression Prevalence
- About of U.S. adults will experience some form of anxiety in their lives
- Anxiety disorders affect more than 40 million U.S. adults
- 1 in 13 people have anxiety globally
- A third of the global population will be affected by an anxiety disorder at some point
- More than 260 million people have depression globally
- Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide
- 16 million U.S. adults have major depressive disorder
- 10% of youth in the U.S. have severe depression
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Disconnection From Hope For The Future
While disconnection from childhood trauma is a form of disconnection from the past, this section focuses on disconnection from the future: specifically, being unable to picture a hopeful future for yourselfor even any future at all.
You might assume that a lost sense of the future is just another symptom of depressionpeople get depressed, so they stop planning ahead because there doesnt seem to be a pointbut a lost sense of the future can also cause depression. Researchers confirmed this by studying indigenous First Nations groups in Canada. For generations, indigenous Canadians have suffered the same state-sanctioned abuses as Native Americans in the United States, including being forced off their ancestral land and into reservations. As a result, suicide rates were higher among First Nations people than any other group in Canadabut those suicides were clustered in only half of the 196 indigenous nations. The other half had zero suicides.
Feeling in control of your life is so important to avoiding depression because when you dont control your life, you cant control your future and when you have no way to influence the future, its hard to picture a happy one that feels remotely attainable. If your present reality is brutal and you cant picture a hopeful future, depression is a pretty logical response.
When To Talk To Someone About Your Symptoms
Once anxiety or depression impacts your life, you should seek help from a mental health professional. The psychological conditions can lead to social isolation, worsening performance at school or work, and substance abuse as a coping mechanism.
If you rely on drugs or alcohol as a response to anxiousness or depression, consider rehabilitation. The Recovery Village has centers throughout the country that provide co-occurring disorder treatment when a mental illness pairs with addiction. The team of experts can help you attain a substance-free lifestyle and treat your mental condition.
If youre looking for healthy ways to manage anxiety and depression, the Nobu app can help. It is free and for anyone that is looking to reduce anxiety, work through depression, build self-esteem, get aftercare following treatment, attend teletherapy sessions and so much more. Download the Nobu app today!
Facts & Statistics. Anxiety and Depression Association of America. Accessed January 10, 2019.
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What Do The Terms Anxiety And Depression Mean
A key difference between anxiety and depression is that one refers to a single illness, and the other to a group of conditions.
- Depression is really one illness. It has lots of different symptoms . And it may feel very different to different people. But the term depression refers to a single condition.
- Anxiety is a term that can have a few different meanings. We all feel anxious sometimes and anxiety can be used simply to describe that feeling. But when we use anxiety in a medical sense, it actually describes a group of conditions.
Anxiety includes some less common conditions. These include phobias and panic disorders. But the most common is generalised anxiety disorder . Generalised anxiety disorder may affect between four and five in every 100 people in the UK. Well focus on generalised anxiety in this article.
Develop An Action Plan For Anxiety And Depression
Your action plan for anxiety and depression will cover a wide range of options. The plan can include exercise, stress management and how to improve your sleep. You may be referred to a psychologist who can help you address things like negative thinking and how to manage difficulties in your relationships.
Some people think its weak to admit theyre going through a tough time, but if you have anxiety or depression, you cant just snap out of it or pull yourself together. Theres more to it than that.
If you think you may have anxiety or depression, and want to take action, start by talking to someone you trust keeping it to yourself can make things worse. Discuss your situation with a friend, partner, family member a colleague or your GP.
Beyond Blue has put together information about how men can create an action plan.
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Recognizing The Signs High
The signs of high-functioning anxiety and depression can get hidden within seemingly reasonable justifications. Even though one might be holding down a job, going to school, or in a healthy relationship, he or she experiences disruptions in life activities that may not be necessarily obvious. Some of these hidden disruptions can be seen in behaviors such as declining social invitations with the excuse that work has been busy or stressful, sleeping more or sleeping less, and an overreliance on coping mechanisms like excessive exercise, overeating, or overindulging in alcohol or illicit substances.
Other signs of high-functioning anxiety or depression are:
- Pervasive self-criticism
- Excessive worry or guilt over past or future decisions
- An Inability slow down or to feel real joy
The symptoms of high-functioning anxiety and depression, like other forms of anxiety and depression, only get worse over time when not treated.
Feeling Depressed In Reaction Toyour Problems With Anxiety
Its also common for people who are having a difficult time with an anxiety disorder to feel depressed as a result of the way anxiety is interfering with their lives. Its my experience that most patients who experience this will find that their depression lifts naturally as a result of doing better with anxiety, and no special treatment for the depression is necessary.
There are two circumstances under which an anxiety patient may need specific help for depression. One is if he or she has become so depressed in response to anxiety that they no longer have the energy and motivation to overcome the anxiety disorder. In this case, either medication or cognitive behavioral methods can be used to help overcome the depression. The second is the case of a person who experienced a severe depression before the anxiety disorder appeared, a depression which was not just a reaction to the troubles imposed by the anxiety disorder. This depression, called a primary depression, is likely to require medication treatment.
If you find yourself confused about your symptoms of anxiety and depression, and what kind of trouble they may indicate, dont struggle in silence with the confusion. Ask your doctor or therapist directly about your diagnosis.
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