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Who Diagnoses Anxiety And Depression

Can You Qualify For Life Insurance If You Have A Mental Health Condition

300% increase in anxiety and depression symptoms during pandemic

Its unlikely youll be denied life insurance coverage just because you have a mental health condition. You may pay more with some insurers, but others might offer you their most affordable premiums. Like any other health condition, it will depend on how you manage your mental health and the type of diagnosis you received from your physician.

Treatment Of Anxiety And Depression

A treatment plan for co-occurring anxiety and depression should be designed to help the person manage and reduce symptoms of both disorders at the same time.

Several forms of psychotherapy are widely available and effective for both anxiety and depression.

  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy : This short-term therapy works to replace negative and unproductive thought patterns with more realistic and useful ones. This treatment focuses on taking specific steps to manage and reduce symptoms.
  • Interpersonal talk therapy: This attachment-focused therapy centers on resolving interpersonal problems and symptomatic recovery.
  • Problem solving therapy: This treatment helps people learn tools to effectively manage the negative effects of stressful life events.

Both anxiety and depressive disorders respond to treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor medications.

Long-term, combined treatment is typically recommended for people with co-occurring anxiety and depression.

  • Hirschfeld, R., The Comorbidity of Major Depression and Anxiety Disorders: Recognition and Management in Primary Care, Primary Care Companion Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Volume 3 , 2001: 244-254.
  • 2. American Psychological Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, American Psychiatric Publishing, Washington, D.C., 2013.

    B Depression In Patients With Anxiety Disorders Under Treatment

    If the patient with an anxiety disorder is under treatment , the potential iatrogenic role of therapy needs to be evaluated . Demoralization and mood disturbances may occur during treatment of agoraphobia and panic with CBT . Depression may also ensue during antidepressant treatment . The overall situation may be complicated, as this case illustrates.

    Clinical Presentation

    Thomas is a 35-year-old, single, white-collar worker. He has been taking citalopram for social anxiety for 2 years and reported a mild improvement in anxiety. Citalopram had been prescribed by the family doctor. Recently, however, he started feeling sad, had late insomnia, loss of interest in life, and reported a decrease in appetite and energy. His anxiety considerably increased, especially when he tried to approach women, and a panic attack occurred. The family doctor increased citalopram to 40 mg per day with no results.

    Assessment and Diagnosis

    Macroanalysis. The patient met DSM-5 criteria for a major depressive episode and social anxiety disorder. He also reported one isolated panic attack. The loss of clinical effect after 2 years of treatment with citalopram, as well as the refractoriness to dose increase, are well documented in the literature . The patient de facto did not respond to the first course of treatment. Thomass macroanalysis is illustrated in Figure 2.

    Fig. 2.

    Macroanalysis of Thomas clinical case.

    Treatment Options

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    Interplay Between Biological And Psychological Factors

    In order to treat an anxiety disorder effectively, clinicians should understand how these conditions emerge and which factors are involved in maintaining them. In recent years, we have gained a better understanding of the interplay between genetic, biological, and stress factors that shape the presentation of the disorder, although it is not clear which factors are inherited.

    One possibility is that abnormal cognition could be the inherited factor. Cognitive theory assigns a primary importance to abnormal or catastrophic cognition as an underlying mechanism of all anxiety disorders. Most cognitive strategies for treatment and research were developed in earlier years.

    The ABC model focuses on the interaction of information processing and emotional and cognitive processes that are controlled by overlapping circuits and compete for the same brain resources.27

    In most anxiety disorders, patients usually process fear-inducing information in excessive detail that overwhelms their ability to appraise it properly. They cope by separating the information into good and bad with no gray area in between. As a result, they consider the worst-case scenario and then act to protect themselves against the perceived danger.

    Anxiety Diagnosis In Children

    Signs and symptoms of depression

    Childhood and the teenage years are full of new, frightening experiences and events. Some children learn to confront and accept these fears. However, an anxiety disorder can make it difficult or impossible for a child to cope.

    The same diagnostic criteria and assessments that are used for adults apply to children, too. In the Anxiety and Related Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-5 , your doctor interviews both you and your child about their symptoms.

    Symptoms in children are similar to those in adults. If you notice anxiety symptoms or any anxious or worrying behaviors that last for more than two weeks, take your child to the doctor. There, they can be checked for an anxiety disorder.

    Some research suggests that anxiety can have a genetic component. If anyone in your family has ever been diagnosed with anxiety or a depressive disorder, get your child evaluated as soon as you notice symptoms. A proper diagnosis can lead to interventions to help them manage anxiety at a young age.

    Recommended Reading: How To Cope With Anxiety And Depression

    What Is Separation Anxiety Disorder

    This condition mostly happens to children or teens, who may worry about being away from their parents. Children with separation anxiety disorder may fear that their parents will be hurt in some way or not come back as promised. It happens a lot in preschoolers. But older children and adults who experience a stressful event may have separation anxiety disorder as well.

    How To Seek Help

    When seeking more formalized help for anxiety or depression, start by speaking with your primary care physician.

    You can also research local referrals via national organizations including:

    Bear in mind that while effective treatment for anxiety or depression need not be a long-term commitment, it is likely to require regular, ongoing appointments at least in the short term . Therefore, it is critical to find a professional you trust and with whom you feel comfortable speaking about your symptoms.

    It is equally important to make sure that you find a clinician that you can afford. Before making the commitment to ongoing care, you may want to meet with a couple of providers to get a feel for their therapeutic styles and their treatment recommendations. You can then use this information to determine which path forward feels best to you.

    Read Also: How To Conquer Social Anxiety

    How To Know Which One You Suffer From

    The only way to know for sure if you suffer from depression or anxiety is to see a mental health professional. They will be able to diagnose you based on the symptoms you are experiencing.

    Diagnosis of anxiety and depression can be tricky because the symptoms of one can often mimic the symptoms of the other. Furthermore, many people suffer from both conditions at the same time. This is known as comorbidity.

    Typically, there is a variety of psychological evaluations and tests that mental health professionals use to determine whether someone suffers from depression, anxiety, or both. These include:

    • Beck Depression Inventory
    • Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory
    • Beck Anxiety Inventory

    You may also be asked to undergo physical tests to rule out other conditions that may be causing your symptoms. These may include blood tests and brain scans for disorders like thyroid problems or brain tumors.

    It is important to note that there is no one-size-fits-all approach to diagnosis. Mental health professionals will also often ask about any family history of mental illness, as well as any recent life events that may have triggered the onset of symptoms.

    Why Are Anxiety And Depression Often Co

    Signs & symptoms of anxiety and depression in teens

    Its a cycle, says Sally R. Connolly, LCSW and therapist. When you get anxious, you tend to have this pervasive thinking about some worry or some problem. You feel bad about it. Then you feel like youve failed. You move to depression.

    These two disorders anxiety and depression have a complicated relationship:

    • The chance of acquiring depression is much higher when an anxiety disorder already exists. Nearly half of those with major depression also suffer from severe and persistent anxiety.
    • People who are depressed often feel anxious and worried. One can easily trigger the other, with anxiety often preceding depression.
    • People with post-traumatic stress disorder are especially prone to developing depression.
    • A biological predisposition for both of these conditions if often at the root of an individuals battle. This seems to be true with anxiety disorders even more than with depression. Connolly explains, Some people are just worriers and pass it down.

    People with an anxiety disorder should speak with a psychiatrist, therapist or other healthcare professional about their symptoms. Treatment for an anxiety disorder should not be delayed. If not caught in time, depression may find the door wide open for moving in and setting up house in those individuals.2

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    What’s The Difference Between Anxiety And Depression

    Nearly 103 million American adults will deal with a mental health issue like anxiety or depression throughout their lives. according to the National Institute of Mental Health . T

    The organization also states that an estimated that 8.4% of all U.S. adults suffered with at least one major depressive episode in 2020 alone.

    Forty million adults deal with some form of anxiety each year in the United States, according to the Anxiety & Depression Association of America additional, the ADAA says, major depressive disorder is the leading cause of disability in Americans ages 15 to 44.

    While these are two common mental health issues that people battle individually, they are also things that can occur simultaneously. In fact, more than half of people who are diagnosed with depression have an anxiety disorder as well.

    But what is the difference between anxiety and depression? How do you know which one you may be dealing with? And what do you do if you have both?

    How Do I Know If My Child Has An Anxiety Disorder

    Anxiety-related problems in children share four common features. The anxiety:

    • Is typically a fear or fixation that interferes with the ability to enjoy life, get through the day or complete tasks.
    • Is puzzling to both the child and parents.
    • Does not improve after logical explanations to address the worries.
    • Is treatable.

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    Exclusion Criteria For Cases

    The lower age limit of 65 years was chosen to coincide with the International Classification of Disease Version10 definition of late-onset dementia. Patients with diagnostic Read codes of dementia subtypes including Lewy Body dementia, frontotemporal dementia and HIV associated dementia were also excluded as they have potentially different aetiologies.

    What Is A Panic Disorder

    Depression vs Anxiety

    If you have a panic disorder, you get intense, sudden panic attacks. These attacks often feature stronger, more intense feelings than other types of anxiety disorders.

    The feelings of terror may start suddenly and unexpectedly or they may come from a trigger, like facing a situation you dread. Panic attacks can resemble heart attacks. If theres any chance youre experiencing a heart attack, go to the emergency room. Its better to err on the side of caution and have a healthcare professional check you.

    During a panic attack, you may experience:

    • Sweating.
    • Chest pain.
    • Feeling of choking, which can make you think youre having a heart attack or going crazy.

    Panic attacks are very upsetting. People with panic disorder often spend a lot of time worrying about the next panic attack. They also try to avoid situations that might trigger an attack.

    Also Check: What To Do When You Get Anxiety At Night

    How Can Depression Symptoms Lead To A Depression Diagnosis

    To be diagnosed with major depression, you must have at least five of the symptoms listed above with at least one of the first two nearly daily for at least 2 weeks.

    Depression symptoms can last weeks, months, or sometimes years. They can affect personality and interfere with social relationships and work habits, potentially making it difficult for others to have empathy for you. Some symptoms are so disabling that they interfere significantly with your ability to function. In very severe cases, people with depression may be unable to eat, maintain their hygiene, or even get out of bed.

    Episodes may happen only once in a lifetime or may be recurrent, chronic, or longstanding. In some cases, they seem to last forever. Symptoms may appear to be precipitated by life crises. At other times, they may seem to happen at random.

    Clinical depression commonly goes along with other medical illnesses such as heart disease or cancer and worsens the prognosis for these illnesses.

    Medication Dosing And Follow

    Initiation and Continuation: Pick target symptoms to self-monitor and document weekly or download from ). Ask families and caregivers to help by daily monitoring the child or youth for worsening symptoms or any unusual changes or behaviours, particularly any emergence of suicidality. Discuss an emergency plan as well as planned follow-up.

    General Dosing Suggestions: Start with ¼ or ½ of the adult dose and wait at least one week to increase dosages. For adolescents, the maximum dose can be similar to adults, while the dose is less than the adult dose for children.19

    • Anxiety: Children who are anxious are sensitive to physical sensations. Provide support, reassurance and monitor frequently. Generalized anxiety disorder may respond at lower doses ,20 OCD generally start low and increase slowly. Dosing example: 10 mg daily fluoxetine for an adolescent. For an anxious 6 year old, start with 5 mg daily and use increments of 5 mg every two weeks if needed.
    • Depression: The response often requires full doses for youth and the response to medication is slower. Example: start the first week with 10 mg daily of fluoxetine and increase to 20 mg daily as soon as tolerated. Increase again up 30 mg daily if not improved after 6 weeks to a maximum of 40 mg daily. If not responding after 10-12 weeks, refer to specialist.

    Continuation: For both anxiety and depression the usual length of treatment is 6-12 months before a trial of tapering.

    Referral options

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    Which Lab Tests Can Help Make The Depression Diagnosis

    After reviewing the information from your appointment, including the signs and symptoms, patient history, family history, and physician exam, your doctor may ask for some lab tests to rule out a physical condition that may be causing your symptoms. Certain viruses, medicines, hormonal or vitamin deficiencies, and illnesses can cause depression-like symptoms. Your doctor will also want to review all medications youâre taking as well as the alcohol or recreational drugs you may be using.

    Whats The Difference Between Depression And Anxiety

    Understanding the Differences Between Anxiety and Depression | Kaiser Permanente

    Anxiety and depression are distinct mental health disorders. Each has its own set of symptoms.

    For example, someone with anxiety may experience excessive fear or worry, while someone with depression may experience persistent feelings of hopelessness.

    However, they are often interconnected. Someone with depression can experience anxiety symptoms as part of their mood disorder, and someone with a persistent anxiety disorder can develop depression over time.

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